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   2021| January-March  | Volume 10 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 6, 2021

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Quality assessment of cookies produced from wheat and red kidney bean flour
Abimbola A Noah, Mary A Adedeji
January-March 2021, 10(1):6-9
Background: The effect of substitution of wheat flour with red kidney bean flour in cookies' production was investigated. Cookies were produced using different levels of wheat flour substituted with red kidney bean flour ranging from 0% to 40% and using 100% wheat flour as control. Material and Methods: The proximate composition, mineral composition, and sensory properties of cookies were determined using standard methods. Results: The proximate analysis results showed that moisture, ash, and protein content increased from 5.23% to 6.93%, 1.50% to 4.73%, and 10.77% to 13.98%, respectively, whereas fat, fiber, and carbohydrate decrease from 33.31% to 17.37%, 2.65% to 1.21%, and 61.93%–40.10% with increased substitution of red kidney bean flour. The mineral content shows that there was increase in phosphorus, iron, molybdenum, magnesium and calcium from 27.41 to 51.22, 2.15 to 3.55, 0.02 to 0.09, 2.66 to 3.55, and 13.49 to 27.66 mg/l. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (P < 0.05) in sensory attributes analyzed. Sample B (90:10) was preferred in terms of color, taste, and overall acceptability with mean scores of 7.80, 6.90, and 8.10, respectively. Conclusion: This study, therefore, shows an improvement in the nutritional contents and organoleptic properties of cookies. Hence, the fortification of wheat flour with red kidney bean flour should be encouraged.
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Development and optimization of wheatgrass-based instant soup mix using response surface methodology
Nawab Mahe Jabeen, G Phani Kumar, N Devanna, SS Manjunath
January-March 2021, 10(1):10-15
Introduction: Wheat grass is the shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. belongs to the family Gramineae, and posses high chlorophyll content, essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, aminoacids, dietary fibers etc., It has been shown to posses anti- cancer, anti- ulcer, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activity due to the presence of biologically active compounds, and minerals. Therefore, the present study has been proposed to develop optimized wheatgrass-based instant soup mix using response surface technology as a statistical tool. Materials and Methods: Response Surface Methodology (RSM)is a statistical tool which can be used to determine the best combination of ingredients to optimize overall acceptability of any food product. Ingredients such as lyophilized wheatgrass powder, tomato powder, and wheat bran have been selected as independent variables, while overall acceptability (OAA) and consistency were considered as dependent variables. Physicochemical, rheological, antioxidant activity, sensorial parameters were determined for the optimized instant soup mix and compared with the commercial sample. Results: The results indicated that lyophilized wheatgrass significantly increased (P < 0.05%) the nutritional contents, namely protein, fiber, total polyphenols, and flavonoids. Further, studies on high-performance liquid chromatography reveal that the soup mix consists of a high amount of sinapic acid. Moreover, the study revealed that the developed soup mix is rich in antioxidant activity with good overall acceptability. Conclusion: The developed combination of wheat-based soup mix efficiently can be consumed as a health booster.
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Trace element status and human endocrine health: A perspective
Deepti Gholap Khanvilkar, Simran Nagarjee
January-March 2021, 10(1):1-5
The presence of trace elements is vital for the smooth functioning of the human body. Although trace elements such as Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn are present in low concentrations, they are considered as the building blocks of life, participating actively in regulating many biochemical processes. The endocrine system influences every cell in the human body to maintain equilibrium at the cellular level. Imbalance in the homeostasis of hormone production, secretion, manifests in the development of endocrine abnormalities. The specific objective of this article is to perform a comprehensive, detailed evaluation of the adequacy of current research undergoing risk assessment of endocrine-related disorders and its association with trace elements. In this review, we have studied >100 research and review publications on the aforementioned topic. After a thorough investigation it has come to our notice, that although not many, there are a few studies undertaking the investigation of the individual influence of a particular trace element on a focused pathological hormonal disorder. However, there are only a handful of studies investigating the effect of the multiple trace elements and their combined effect on the molecular as well as cellular functions of the human endocrine system.
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Nutritional potential of Solanum nigrum linn berries grown in home garden
Lakshmi Jithendran, Chinnappan A Kalpana
January-March 2021, 10(1):16-19
Background: Solanum nigrum Linn is an annual herbaceous medicinal plant which can be cultivated in a natural setting. Normally this plant reaches a height of 35–100 cm. The flowers petals are greenish or whitish with bright yellow anthers. Black or purple color berries grown in bunches are noticed in this type of plants. Leaves, raw and ripe berries are consumed in different regions with a different culinary style. Aim and Objective: The present study was aimed to analyze the nutrient content of the dried berries cultivated in a home garden. Materials and Methods: Matured berries were harvested, shade dried and stored in air tight containers. Proximate principles, mineral, vitamin and phytochemical constituents of the dried berries were analyzed using standard procedures such as AOAC, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and spectrophotometer methods. Results: The study findings revealed that moisture (10.27%), ash (6.68%), fiber (1.4%), carbohydrate (40.4%), protein (3.86%) and fat (2.55%) were present in the sample. Energy content was found to be 186 kcal/100 g. Mineral analysis indicated that Ca (32 mg), Fe (0.56 mg), Al (0.42 mg), Cu (0.25 mg) and zinc were below detection limit per 100 g. Thiamine hydrochloride (0.37 mg), Riboflavin (0.24 mg), niacinamide (0.37 mg), pyridoxine (0.26 mg), folic acid bile-duct ligated, Vitamin C (5.42 mg) and beta carotene (7.52 mg) were present per 100 g of the dried berries. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids (3.3%), tannins (1.3%), saponins (2.9%). Conclusion: The findings focus on the nutritional attributes of the herb which can be utilized in our household.
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