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   2019| October-December  | Volume 8 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 20, 2020

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‘Antibiotic residue free broiler meat’; Prevalence of antibiotic residues in broiler meat and resistant bacteria in poultrylitter in sri lanka and awareness on antibiotic usage
WA M Lowe, TS Samarakone, JK Vidanarachchi, WS Dandeniya, N Edirisinghe
October-December 2019, 8(4):34-40
Antibiotics are broadly being used in poultry industry where the residual effect and antibiotic resistance have become major environmental impacts. In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out with thirty three buyback farmers and employees of closed house farms from six broiler chicken producers in Sri Lanka. Eighty four whole birds were randomly selected at processing plants and tested for antibiotic residues in liver, kidney and breast, using the Six Plate Assay method (SPA). Litter samples from twenty five farms were cultured in Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) with 3 treatments; T1: TSA+0 ppm Antibiotics, T2: TSA+10 ppm Enrofloxacine and T3: TSA+10 ppm Tetracycline. The survey revealed that the managers and supervisors of the closed house farms and the buyback farmers had a substantial knowledge on antibiotics and their adverse effect whereas the laborers of closed houses were not well aware. All the litter samples contained resistant bacterial populations where the Tetracycline resistant population was always higher (P<0.05) than that of Enrofloxacine. The broiler meat was free from detectable amounts of antibiotic residues. In conclusion, broiler chickens (meat, livers and kidneys) of the surveyed producers were free from antibiotic residues. However, broiler litter samples consisted of antibiotic resistant bacterial populations.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Standardization and shelf life study of soya oats chocolate bar (Nutri Chocolush)
Sayali Ugale, Mrunal Chavan, Anuradha Shekhar
October-December 2019, 8(4):1-6
A shelf life study was done to standardize an innovative, nutritious product for consumer acceptance. A healthy yet tasty recipe was developed as in today's world; people want to eat healthy and tasty. The base ingredient used in the recipe was soya chunks along with oats, dates, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, watermelon seeds, sunflower seeds, sabja seeds, rajgeera, sesame seeds, raisins, honey, cinnamon powder and dark chocolate to give variety to the product. Nutri Chocolush not only provides energy, protein, carbohydrates and fats, but also has high amount of iron, calcium, fibre and potassium. It also contains several phytochemicals belonging to the categories of alkaloids, flavonoids and palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Shelf life study including sensory evaluation was done by scoring test with a 7 point hedonic scale on attributes such as texture, taste, after taste, flavour, and overall acceptability. The other aspects covered in the shelf life study were packaging, labelling, budgeting and marketing.
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Effect OF UV-B light and sunlight exposure on the Vitamin d2 content of button (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) Mushrooms
TS Lakshmi, A Mary Pramela
October-December 2019, 8(4):41-47
Mushrooms are found to have vitamin D2 in an inactive form (ergosterol), which when exposed to UV light can be converted to its active form (ergocalciferol). This study had scrutinized the vitamin D2 content of cultivated button (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), treated post-harvest using UV-B (sample B) and sunlight (sample C) on exposing them to the respective treatments for 30 min each. The untreated mushrooms (sample A) of both varieties were used as a baseline comparator to the vitamin D2 content in mushrooms exposed to sun and UV light. The mushrooms were exposed to sunlight between 11 a.m to 3.00 p.m, as it is the time when UVB radiation is at its peak. The vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms were estimated using the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The UV light treatment caused an increase in the vitamin D2 content of button mushroom from 0.41 to 7.41 μg/100 g and from 0.34 to 8.39 μg/ 100 g in oyster mushrooms. On exposure to sunlight, the vitamin D2 content of button mushrooms was found to be 2.29 μg/100 g whereas that of the oyster mushrooms was found to be below the levels of quantification. Thus, UV light provides an effective method for increasing vitamin D2 levels in button and oyster mushrooms.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Effect of natural preservatives on proximate composition of preserved sea fish, processed under traditional cooking methods
Uttiya Jana, Sarmistha Chakrabarti
October-December 2019, 8(4):25-33
Fish contains high quality of protein with essential amino acids which is important for growth and development and thus are commonly consumed. This study aims to compare the proximate composition of two easily available sea fish, i.e., pomfret (Pampus argenteus) and hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) preserved with the natural preservative, i.e., combination of salt and turmeric and without preservative bothup to 15 days. These preserved fishes were subjected to traditional cooking methods such as open pan dry roasting, boiling, shallow frying and deep frying and macro nutrient contents were analyzed after immediate (24 hours) and long term (15 days) preservation. The nutrientcontents significantly decreased in the cooked fishes than those in the raw condition. The changes of the nutrient content occurred due to cooking as it involves the application of heat, oil, water. Boiling caused more reduction of nutrients, whereas it is better restored in deep fat frying method. The study conclude that the elimination of nutrients occurred due to both the preservation as well as the cooking conditions but these losses can be diminished by the use of the combination of salt and turmeric. It was also found that among the twosea fish, restoration was better in pomfret.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Chemical and nutritional characterization of brand and private label dairy products: UHT Cream, a case study
Mena Ritota, Maria Mattera, Maria Gabriella Di Costanzo, Pamela Manzi
October-December 2019, 8(4):7-17
Recently, Private Label (PL) products are widespread in all supermarket shelves. At the beginning consumers believed that these food items had poor quality, but now PL products have considerably improved and are in constant competition with national Brand (B) products. Apart from the price, it's very hard for consumers to understand the real differences between B and PL products. For this purpose, using cream as a case study, the proximate composition, fat soluble vitamins, cholesterol, minerals, and the colour parameters of different Brand and Private Label UHT creams with ≥ 20% milk fat were evaluated. Moreover, two tracing parameters, such as the Degree of Retinol Isomerization (DRI) and the Degree of Antioxidant Protection (DAP) were assessed. Principal Components Analysis showed that protein, fat and carbohydrate contents, together with DRI and the colour parameters a* and b*, were the variables most influencing the separation between PL and B creams on the first two Principal Components. Nevertheless, it was very hard to discriminate PL from B creams: this was probably due to the heterogeneity of the samples (differences in raw materials or different manufacturing processes), as well as to seasonal changes in milk composition or cows' breed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Methylene chloride: Understanding its environmental impact, use in food and beverages, and impact on human health
Rocco Casagrande
October-December 2019, 8(4):18-24
This brief report reviews US and international government regulations and guidelines for Methylene Chloride (MC) in air, drinking water, and food, investigates the known health hazards of MC, the potential risk to consumers from drinking decaffeinated coffee, and the potential harm to the environment from MC disposal.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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