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Glycemic index and glycemic load of multigrain chapatti (Indian flatbread) in healthy adult individuals
S Nasreen, Zubaida Azeem
January-March 2020, 9(1):16-19
Introduction: Chapatti is a common Indian breakfast cereal-based preparation prepared from whole wheat flour and is consumed as a staple in various parts of India, especially North India. A multigrain chapatti developed and glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of both preparations are analyzed to find out whether high fiber, high protein ingredients interfere with the glycemic response. Methodology: Seventeen healthy adult men and women non-pregnant and non-lactating (18–45 years) were selected to volunteer the study. GI values were assessed using the standard method suggested by FAO/WHO 1998 (1). Participants in three different sessions were served with reference food i.e., aqueous solution of glucose, basic chapatti (made with 100% whole wheat flour) as reference food and multigrain chapatti (made with 70% whole wheat flour mixed with other grains, namely oats, soya bean, psyllium husk, jowar, and green gram dhal). Multigrain chapatti recipe was first standardized for the accuracy. Blood glucose concentration was analyzed using the one-prick finger capillary glucose analyzer in fasting state (0 min) and 15, 30, 45, 90, and 120 min, respectively, after ingestion of test food, GI was then calculated, and relative difference between GI of test and reference food was calculated, and statistical difference among different food was analyzed. Results: The GI value of the test food (multigrain chapatti) resulting from the analyses was 45.61 ± 18.06 for (104 g corresponding to 50 g available carbohydrate), and the GL value was 4.88 per serving, i.e., 30 g, which is comparably less when compare to basic chapatti made with 100% wheat flour (i.e., 94.95 g of wheat flour corresponding to 50 g available carbohydrate) 61.41 ± 21.37 and GL for one serving, i.e., 30 g, 9.45 ± 2. Conclusion: Inclusion of high fiber, nutrient-dense ingredients to recipe-like chapatti can be encouraged at the community level for improving dietary adequacy. These results can be considered as guidelines in the development of the healthy nutrient-dense product for consumers keen to pick healthy alternatives to their diets.
  1,485 160 -
Health benefits of Moringa Oleifera: A miracle tree
Shivani G Varmani, Meenakshi Garg
April-June 2014, 3(3):111-117
Plants have played substantial role in the maintenance of human health, from time immemorable. Moringa oleifera is one such multipurpose tree, commonly used in spices & cosmetic oils, and has various medicinal and therapeutic applications.Moringa is an outstanding source of nutritional components. Almost every part of this tree holds products useful for humans. Studies have shown that Moringa and its components possess wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial & anti-helminthic, antipyretic, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, lipid lowering, antifertility, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antiulcer properties etc. Further, phytoanalytical studies on Moringa are revealing more and more potential components and their action. This is a comprehensive review on this wonder tree and highlights its multidimensional actions. Medicinal potential of this promising healer is enormous and thus, can help in solving the health care needs in several problems related to health and nutrition. Its wide availability and easy cultivation offers immense opportunities as a commercially viable medicinal and nutritional supplement even in a developing country.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,405 168 -
Nutritional, socioeconomic and health benefits of dates
JF Dayang, CR Reuben, F Raji
October-December 2014, 3(6):63-73
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. The date palm fruit is a drupe exhibiting a high diversity in texture, shape, color and chemical composition depending on the genotype, environment, season and cultural practices. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the nutritional, health and socioeconomic benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. Phytochemical investigations have revealed that dates contain anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids, procyanidins and flavonoids, compounds known to possess multiple beneficial effects. Date pits are also an excellent source of dietary fiber and contain considerable amounts of minerals, lipids and protein. In addition, despite the presence of several reports on the chemical composition and the nutritional value of dates, many other potentialities of the fruits remain unexplored. Studies have shown that dates possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer, antiulcer and immunostimulant activities. Dates are very rich in phenolics, in quality and quantity, which opens many fields of investigation in terms of new potential uses. Therefore, this review summarizes the phytochemical composition, nutritional significance, and health benefits of date fruit consumption and discusses its great potential in worldwide production/commercialization as a medicinal food for a number of diseases inflicting human beings.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,156 152 -
Pumpkin powder (Cucurbita maxima)-supplemented string hoppers as a functional food
Anuruddika Malkanthi, Umadevi S Hiremath
January-March 2020, 9(1):2-6
Background: Pumpkin has frequently been used as a functional food due to its nutritional and health benefits. In this study, a new application of dried pumpkin powder in string hoppers production is shown. Aim: The main aim of this work is to evaluate the addition of the dried pumpkin powder into rice flour on the physical, functional, nutritional, and sensory properties of string hoppers. Materials and Methodology: String hoppers were prepared using white rice flour, which was substituted at 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with pumpkin pulp powder. Sensory evaluation was conducted to select best accepted combination. Nutrition analysis was carried out for the best accepted product. Results: On sensory evaluation, 20% pumpkin pulp powder-incorporated string hoppers received the highest scores for appearance (8.06), color (7.93), aroma (8.02), taste (7.80), texture (7.93), and overall acceptability (8.13). This was selected as the best accepted pumpkin-incorporated string hoppers. The nutrient composition of 20% pumpkin pulp powder-incorporated string hoppers and control was moisture (47.79, 51.38%), ash (1.22, 0.059%), protein (6.12, 3.68%), and crude fiber (0.72, 0.29%), and significant increase of nutrients was observed in pumpkin pulp powder-incorporated string hoppers compared to control. Beta carotene content of the accepted string hoppers increased significantly (2.54 mg/100 g). Significant increase in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus content was also observed (227.2 mg, 16.44 mg, 19.83 mg, and 18.83 mg/100 g, respectively). Nearly 20% addition of pumpkin pulp powder increased the antioxidant activity significantly (0.056 mmol/ascorbic acid equivalents/100 g). Conclusion: Pumpkin pulp powder can be successfully supplemented into the traditional string hoppers and used as a functional food with its improved nutritional composition.
  1,105 158 -
Health benefits of wheat grass – A wonder food
Renu Mogra, Preeti Rathi
October-December 2013, 2(4):10-13
Wheat grass is an expensive and efficient source to provide all required nutrients and medicinal benefits for healthy and rejuvenating body. Wheat grass has been proved to contain essential amino acids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, active enzymes, bio flavanoids and chlorophyll which are beneficial for health. Because of these constituents wheat grass possess antibacterial, anti oxidant, anti cancer, anti ulcer property. Blood purification, liver detoxification and colon cleansing are the three important effects of wheat grass on human body. It chemically neutralizes environmental pollutants, enhances immunity, restore energy and vitality. This review article is an attempt to present the findings of scientific studies with regard to use of wheat grass in diseased conditions and therpeutical potential for healthy living.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,018 176 -
The use of artichoke (Cynara scolymus, L) Extracts for the production of tallaga cheese
Amira M El- Kholy
January-March 2015, 4(1):34-41
Aqueous extract of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus, L.) or artichoke flowers were used to produce Tallaga cheese and the chemical, rheological and organoleptic properties of the cheese throughout 21 days of storage were compared with cheese made using calf rennet. Cheese manufactured with artichoke extract exhibited higher levels of acidity, moisture and total nitrogen contents, but lower pH values. Cheese yield was slightly higher in the case of using vegetable enzymes. However, cheese manufactured with artichoke extract contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of soluble nitrogen (SN), soluble nitrogen coefficient (SN/ TN %) and free fatty acid (FFA) than cheese manufactured with calf rennet. Urea- PAGE showed pronounced differences in protein degradation between cheese made with calf rennet and cheese made with vegetable rennet throughout storage period. The electrophoretic pattern showed that artichoke flower extract more proteolytic on αs1- and α- caseins than globe artichoke extract or calf rennet. Compared with cheeses made with calf rennet, cheese made with artichoke flower extract caused greater hydrolysis with resultant softer cheese texture and good flavour. Whereas, the most acceptable cheese were cheese made with globe artichoke extract. The obtained cheese had favorable pronounced flavour, received good sensory ratings all over storage period, and quite similar to cheese made with calf rennet.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  873 236 -
Diet and COVID-19
Ravinder Singh
January-March 2020, 9(1):20-21
  846 154 -
Determination of interaction between some planet tannins and milk proteins by HPLC
Tamer Mohammed El-Messery, Hala Mohamed Faker El-Din, Nayra Shaker Mehanna, Ali Abd-Elaziz Ali, Zakaria Mohamed Rezk Hassan, Ryszard Amarowicz
January-March 2015, 4(1):21-27
Interaction between tannins fraction from different plants sources with milk proteins (β-casein, κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and α-lactoalbumin (α-La)) were determined by HPLC method with a diode array UV detector. The tannin fraction content was isolated from walnuts and green tea and authentic tannic acid. Tannic acid was the highest interaction with β casein and κ casein more than other tannins, in the same time tannins (green tea) was interaction with β casein and κ casein more than tannins (walnut). On the other hand tannic acid was the highest interaction with (β-Lg) and (α-La) more than other tannins, in the same time interaction tannins (walnut) with β-Lg was more than tannins (green tea), but interaction tannins (green tea) with α-La was more than tannins (walnut) but not significant. HPLC technique suitable to allows knowing which protein fraction interact with tannins.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  707 267 -
Entomophagy evaluation and nutritional potential of two edible insects sold in the markets of the city of Man (Côte d'Ivoire)
Adjoua Christiane Eunice Boko, Djédoux Maxime Angaman, Sika Hortense Blei
January-March 2020, 9(1):10-15
Background: Insect consumption remains an important part of the culture of many people around the world, particularly in Africa and Asia. Nearly 1900 edible species have been recorded worldwide. In terms of nutrition, insects are very rich in protein. They contain protein 3–4 times more than pork or chicken for the same weight of material. This content varies greatly depending on the species of insects and their diet, but some insects are more nutritious than beef, crustaceans, and fish. Entomophagy would represent an alternative for people in developing countries and a solution against hunger for under-nuanced populations. In Côte d'Ivoire, nine species have been identified. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate entomophagy in the city of Man and to establish nutritional potential of two edible insect species sold on the markets. Materials and Methods: To do this, a survey was conducted of which 150 people were interviewed randomly and properties of two edible insects Imbrasia oyemensis and Macrotermes subhyalinus were determined. Results: In total 63.7% consumed insects. Entomophagy was related to sex (χ2= 5.17, ddl = 1, 1 − p = 97.71). However, the consumption is motivated by nutritional value (48%) and taste (25.4%); however, disgust (38.1%) and culture (23.8%) limit entomophagy. Furthermore, this study showed that caterpillars (35.9%) and termites (25.0%) were highly prized by the population. Physicochemical characteristics of Imbrasia oyemensis and Macrotermes subhyalinus collected were analyzed. Indeed, insects consumed consist of various nutrients such as lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. About analyses, protein contents ranged from 32.065% ± 2.385% to 51.545% ± 2.385% had a significantly higher content for I. oyemensis. In addition, these species had a high-fat content of up to 46.065% ± 0.31% dry matter (DM). The energy values of 100 g of DM of I. oyemensis and M. subhyalinus were 532.448 ± 1.82 and 616.529 ± 6.87 kcal, respectively. Conclusion: These insects therefore represent a great nutritional value and a real source of energy for humans.
  856 89 -
Natural antioxidants and its benefits
P Anbudhasan, A Surendraraj, S Karkuzhali, P Sathishkumaran
October-December 2014, 3(6):225-232
The consumer concern regarding the safety of using synthetic antioxidants in convenient food products has forced and motivated the food processors to seek for natural alternatives. This leads to a situation where the application of synthetic antioxidants started to decrease drastically in food products. Hence there has been a increasing global trend towards the use of natural antioxidants present in fruits and green leafy vegetables. The effects of these natural antioxidants in scavenging the free radicals are well discussed and reported in the earlier studies. The factors that encourage the use of natural antioxidants are its low cost, compatibility with diet and less harmful effect in the human body. The strong H-donating capacities of various phytochemicals make them as a effective natural antioxidants. Phenols present in plant extracts acts as a potential antioxidant by inhibiting the free radical formation and also prevent auto oxidation. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and volatile oils possess higher antioxidant activity and also acts as the essential part of diet and this claims were supported by various scientific evidence. The health promoting capacity of these natural antioxidants help in eradicating chronic diseases such as cancer. Hence in this review the action of antioxidants on free radicals, occurrence, classification and potential health effects of natural antioxidants was discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  761 168 -
Welcome Medknow with new guidelines
Ravinder Singh
January-March 2020, 9(1):1-1
  813 108 -
Caregivers' knowledge and perception of iron content in common staple foods consumed in Southeastern Nigeria
Uchenna Ekwochi, Chidiebere D. I. Osuorah, Ikenna K Ndu, Isaac N Asinobi, Stanley K Onah
April-September 2020, 9(2):23-26
Background: Iron-deficiency anemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality of children in our environment. The knowledge of its function and food-rich sources of iron among mothers and/or caregivers will go a long way to mitigate the growth and developmental consequences of iron deficiency in children. Methods: Due to the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in our locality, we set out to determine the knowledge of mothers and/or caregivers of the richest source of iron among all staple foods commonly consumed in our locality and their awareness of cooking methods that degrade the dietary iron. This cross-sectional hospital study conducted over an 8-month period recruited and interviewed 407 mothers/caregivers attending the Children's Outpatient Clinic of the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital using illustrated self-administered questionnaires. Results: A vast majority (90.9%) were aware of dietary iron, but when further questioned about its source and function, almost all respondents (99.2%) considered unripe plantain as the richest food source of iron. None chose cowpea which contains the highest iron content. Likewise, none identified cooking practices that reduce dietary iron availability. Eighteen (4.4%) correctly recognized individuals at the highest risk for iron deficiency, whereas only 5 (2.4%) and 1 (0.3%), respectively, correctly selected all the correct functions of iron and ways it can be lost in the body. Conclusion: Respondents in our study have absolutely no knowledge of cowpea, the richest and cheapest sources of iron in our environment. There is consequently a need to create a comprehensive nutritional campaign, especially during antenatal and well-child clinic visits, to educate parents/caregivers on local and readily available iron-rich food sources and cooking practices while discouraging cooking practices that could potentially degrade elemental iron in these food sources.
  791 94 -
Formulation and quality evaluation of complementary mixes from foxtail millet, amaranth, spinach, banana, and papaya
Poovizhi Selvi Ravi, P Nazni
April-September 2020, 9(2):32-36
Background: Proper nutrition during infancy has a significant effect on a child's future health, immunity and success. Weaning is a transition time for the child during which the consistency and source of its diet shifts. Objective: This study was carried out to formulate foxtail millet-based composite mixes and to assess the feeding practices among the infants under the age group of 0–12 months. Materials and Methods: Foxtail millet and other major ingredients such as Bengal gram dhal, green gram dhal, groundnut, and amaranthus, as well as spinach, were procured from local market in Salem, Tamil Nadu. Fruits such as banana and papaya were also procured from the local market in Salem, Tamil Nadu. Four kinds of complementary feeding mixes were formulated at different combinations. The formulated four composite mixes have undergone an assessment of nutritive value, microbial examination, sensory analysis, and shelf-life studies. Results: The findings showed that the formulated composite mixes compared to Prescribed Dietary Allowances (Recommended Dietary Allowances) were expected to show a significant difference in nutrients such as energy, protein, thiamine, and riboflavin at 0.05% level. Regarding sensory analysis, there was a significant difference between standard and overall acceptability of the formulated mixes at 0.05% level. The shelf-life at the end of 30 days showed no noticeable difference in appearance, consistency, odor, taste and overall acceptability. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that minor millet and multi-nutrient grains, green leafy vegetables, and basic low-cost fruits were good sources of energy, protein, iron, and micronutrients to the targeted infants as a supplementing weaning food. It can be recommended based on the infant's length and weight with the supervision. To improve the infant and young child feeding, access to adequate complementary food is necessary. complementary food is necessary.
  754 73 -
Characterization of nutritional content and in vitro - antioxidant properties of Plantago ovata seeds
Shalini Sagar, Giridhar Goudar, M Sreedhar, Anil Panghal, Paras Sharma
April-September 2020, 9(2):27-31
Introduction: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate Plantago ovata seeds for its nutrients including water- and fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, oligosaccharides, free sugars, fatty acid profile, polyphenols, and in vitro-antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: The vitamins, sugar profile, and oligosaccharides were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled with flame-ionization detector. Phenolic components and antioxidant activity were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal chelating activity, and reducing power assays. Results: The results revealed that P. ovata seed flour is the rich source of protein (17.70%) and dietary fiber (24.77%). Essential minerals including Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and K, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, α-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol were detected in varying concentrations. Total phenolic content and flavonoid content were found to be 8.72 mg GAE/g and 2.11 mg CE/g, respectively. Antioxidant property analyzed by different methods was reported as DPPH radical scavenging activity (67.9%), ABTS scavenging activity (65.89%), FRAP assay (1.68 μmol Fe (II) equiv/g), metal chelating activity (63.20%), and reducing power (78.40 μmol AAE/g). Conclusion: There are no available reports on the vitamin composition of Psyllium seeds. Psyllium seed is rich in nutrients and biological active compounds that may be utilized in the development of nutraceutical or functional foods.
  733 73 -
Effect of white sesame seeds and cayenne pepper on quality in reduced sodium and low-fat precooked pork patties
Jen-Hua Dave Cheng, Shu-Tai Wang, Shu-Chen Lin
January-March 2020, 9(1):7-9
Background: These precooked products have challenge of flavor change and shelf life during refrigerated storage. Sesame seeds and cayenne pepper can effectively inhibit lipid oxidation and discoloration in meat system. Limited research has focused on their functionalities on the reduced sodium and low-fat meat category. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of reduced sodium and low-fat precooked pork patties prepared with white sesame seeds or cayenne pepper were analyzed for pH, Hunter L*, a*, and b*, heme iron, and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) at refrigerated day 0, 4, and 7. Results: There was a non-significant interaction between treatment and storage time for measurements. Despite of the natural redness from the cayenne pepper, the color of precooked pork patties was preserved with cayenne pepper and white sesame seeds with higher Hunter a*value compared to the control. The TBARS values demonstrated considerable antioxidant activity of white sesame seeds or cayenne pepper in precooked pork patties, while the treatment with cayenne pepper has a significantly lower value than the control. Conclusion: It is concluded that the addition of white sesame seeds or cayenne pepper alleviated the problems of lipid oxidation and discoloration in precooked pork patties.
  696 99 -
Effect of eumicrotremus orbis water extracts on the expression of proteins related to lipid metabolism in obese mice
Byoung-Mok Kim, Heang-Jeun Heo, Jae-Ho Park, Jin-Tack Hwang, Dong-Soo Kim, In-Hack Jeong, Young-Min Chi
January-March 2015, 4(1):28-33
In this study, the lipolytic and anti-obesity effects of Eumicrotremus orbis water extracts (EOWE) were investigated in mice. Animals were randomized into three groups: CON (not supplemented with EOWE); SIL (low dose of supplemented EOWE); SIH (high dose of supplemented EOWE). The AST, ALT, and ALP serum levels were reduced in the EOWE groups compared to the CON group, with no significant difference (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in serum TG levels in the SIH group compared to the CON group (p<0.05). The HSL and p-HSL expression in the EOWE groups were increased compared to the CON group (p<0.05). The expression of MCAD in all organs of the EOWE groups were increased compared to the CON group (p<0.05). There was an increase in the UCP-2 expression in liver and muscle tissues of the EOWE groups, compared to the CON group (p<0.05). These results suggested that EOWE acts as a PPARa activator, and may regulate obesity by stimulating PPARa and UCP activity. Therefore, EOWE appeared to show potential as an anti-obesity material.ax
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  526 201 -
Sensory and nutritional evaluation of value added cakes formulated by incorporating beetroot powder
Pinki , Pratima Awasthi
October-December 2014, 3(6):145-148
Beetroots (Beta vulgaris) are rich in valuable, active compounds such as carotenoids, saponins, folates, betanin, polyphenols and flavonoids. Therefore, beetroot ingestion can be considered a factor in disease prevention. It also contributes to health because has antioxidants called betalains. Beetroot powder (BRP) was incorporated in cakes at 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25 per cent level .The sensory evaluation revealed that 70 per cent of the panelists liked extremely, the cake with 20 per cent BRP incorporation. Sensory evaluation using Score Card method showed that overall acceptability of cake with 20 per cent BRP was 9.15 out of 10 i.e. maximum. Nutritional evaluation of cakes revealed that as the level of BRP incorporation was increased from 0 to 25 per cent in cakes, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and total ash increased from 6.10to12.4%, 23.5 to29.4%, 1.1to7.4%, 3.5to12.1 % respectively. Among minerals (mg/100g) i.e., iron, calcium, and phosphorus increased from 0.1to2.7, 32.0 to 64.0, and 310 to532 respectively. Total Antioxidant Activity increased from 5.5 to 47% and Folic Acid from 0.24to1.9 mg/100g with the increase in BRP incorporation. Cake formulated using20 per cent BRP had protein, fat, fibre ,iron, calcium, folic acid and total antioxidant activity as 11%, 29.2%, 6.7%,1.8mg/100g, 52mg/100g, 1.55mg/100g, 29.4% respectively.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  590 120 -
Food security: A parallelism test between rice production and consumption speeds in the world
Hans Patrick Bidias Menik, Félix Meutchieye
January-March 2015, 4(1):42-48
According to FAO (2009), the world should increase agricultural production by 70% in order to feed 9 billion people in the world by 2050. The FAO estimates that growth of grain at a rate of 0.7% per year would be sufficient to meet demand in 2050. Although this rate has been achieved for the past five years for rice, it could be not enough to ensure food security. Since 2009, the world rice production growth rate is 0.95% per annum. That of consumption is 01.61% per annum. A comparison of the trends of rice production and consumption speeds series was done. The average acceleration of the production for the period 2008/2009-2013/2014 is decreasing and lowers than the one of consumption compared to the period 2003/2004-2008/2009. The parallelism tests reveal that the trend lines of production and consumption speeds are intersecting and converge over the period 2008/2009-2013/2014 at a level of 10%. Such results reveal that there will be not enough rice to satisfy the aggregate demand in some future and confirm the “new productivism” ideology that, we should increase the production of food in the world by 70-100% in order to feed the world in 2050.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  501 193 -
‘Antibiotic residue free broiler meat’; Prevalence of antibiotic residues in broiler meat and resistant bacteria in poultrylitter in sri lanka and awareness on antibiotic usage
WA M Lowe, TS Samarakone, JK Vidanarachchi, WS Dandeniya, N Edirisinghe
October-December 2019, 8(4):34-40
Antibiotics are broadly being used in poultry industry where the residual effect and antibiotic resistance have become major environmental impacts. In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out with thirty three buyback farmers and employees of closed house farms from six broiler chicken producers in Sri Lanka. Eighty four whole birds were randomly selected at processing plants and tested for antibiotic residues in liver, kidney and breast, using the Six Plate Assay method (SPA). Litter samples from twenty five farms were cultured in Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) with 3 treatments; T1: TSA+0 ppm Antibiotics, T2: TSA+10 ppm Enrofloxacine and T3: TSA+10 ppm Tetracycline. The survey revealed that the managers and supervisors of the closed house farms and the buyback farmers had a substantial knowledge on antibiotics and their adverse effect whereas the laborers of closed houses were not well aware. All the litter samples contained resistant bacterial populations where the Tetracycline resistant population was always higher (P<0.05) than that of Enrofloxacine. The broiler meat was free from detectable amounts of antibiotic residues. In conclusion, broiler chickens (meat, livers and kidneys) of the surveyed producers were free from antibiotic residues. However, broiler litter samples consisted of antibiotic resistant bacterial populations.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  603 50 -
Development, quality evaluation and popularization of pumpkin seed flour incorporated bakery products
MN Revathy, N Sabitha
April-June 2013, 2(2):40-45
The society is now heading to find an optimum alimentary diet that tries to promote the consumption of the foods that have a favorable effect on the health. This is the context where appeared the concept of “Functional foods”. Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita Pepo) have received considerable attention in recent years due to its health protective and nutritional benefits. They are a beautiful food – earthy in flavor, sweet nuts used in variety of dishes like snacks (baking), soups, and salads. They are a good source of calories, proteins, carotenoids, minerals, fiber and phytosterols which contribute in regulating cholesterol. They also have omega 3 & omega 6 fatty acids needed for hormone balance, brain function and skin health. Tryptophan present in these seeds aids in milk production in lactating mothers and used to reduce postpartum swelling of the hands and feet. Hence Pumpkin seeds serve as a good nutritious snack and helps in promoting good health. Hence, the present study entitled “Development, Quality Evaluation and Popularization of Pumpkin Seed Flour Incorporated Bakery Products” was framed to formulate and standardize the pumpkin seed flour incorporated bakery products and to create awareness and popularize through nutrition education.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  513 111 -
Vitamin D: Role in COVID-19
P Nazni, R Arivuchudar, Ravinder Singh
April-September 2020, 9(2):37-37
  518 37 -
Standardization and shelf life study of soya oats chocolate bar (Nutri Chocolush)
Sayali Ugale, Mrunal Chavan, Anuradha Shekhar
October-December 2019, 8(4):1-6
A shelf life study was done to standardize an innovative, nutritious product for consumer acceptance. A healthy yet tasty recipe was developed as in today's world; people want to eat healthy and tasty. The base ingredient used in the recipe was soya chunks along with oats, dates, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, watermelon seeds, sunflower seeds, sabja seeds, rajgeera, sesame seeds, raisins, honey, cinnamon powder and dark chocolate to give variety to the product. Nutri Chocolush not only provides energy, protein, carbohydrates and fats, but also has high amount of iron, calcium, fibre and potassium. It also contains several phytochemicals belonging to the categories of alkaloids, flavonoids and palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Shelf life study including sensory evaluation was done by scoring test with a 7 point hedonic scale on attributes such as texture, taste, after taste, flavour, and overall acceptability. The other aspects covered in the shelf life study were packaging, labelling, budgeting and marketing.
  505 36 -
Effect OF UV-B light and sunlight exposure on the Vitamin d2 content of button (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) Mushrooms
TS Lakshmi, A Mary Pramela
October-December 2019, 8(4):41-47
Mushrooms are found to have vitamin D2 in an inactive form (ergosterol), which when exposed to UV light can be converted to its active form (ergocalciferol). This study had scrutinized the vitamin D2 content of cultivated button (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), treated post-harvest using UV-B (sample B) and sunlight (sample C) on exposing them to the respective treatments for 30 min each. The untreated mushrooms (sample A) of both varieties were used as a baseline comparator to the vitamin D2 content in mushrooms exposed to sun and UV light. The mushrooms were exposed to sunlight between 11 a.m to 3.00 p.m, as it is the time when UVB radiation is at its peak. The vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms were estimated using the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The UV light treatment caused an increase in the vitamin D2 content of button mushroom from 0.41 to 7.41 μg/100 g and from 0.34 to 8.39 μg/ 100 g in oyster mushrooms. On exposure to sunlight, the vitamin D2 content of button mushrooms was found to be 2.29 μg/100 g whereas that of the oyster mushrooms was found to be below the levels of quantification. Thus, UV light provides an effective method for increasing vitamin D2 levels in button and oyster mushrooms.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  471 30 -
Effect of steaming, boiling and microwave cooking on the total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties of different vegetables of Assam, India
Sangeeta Saikia, Charu Lata Mahanta
July-September 2013, 2(3):47-53
All the fourteen vegetables selected for the study are an integral part of the diet in North Eastern India. Vegetables like banana blossom, roselle leaves, black eyed pea and teasle gourd are traditionally known to be good for health. The present study determined the effect of three cooking treatments viz. steaming, conventional boiling and microwave cooking on the phytochemical contents (TPC, TFC) and antioxidant activitites (FRAP, DPPH, MCC) on the fourteen vegetables. Results showed both positive and negative impact on the phytochemical properties of the vegetables depending on the cooking method employed and type of the vegetable. Among the three cooking methods employed, steaming emerged as the most suitable method followed by microwave cooking in most of the cases in terms of retention of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Assessment of hypoglycemic effects of apple cider vinegar in type 2 diabetes
P Nazni, Ravinder Singh, R Shobana Devi, Harpreet Singh, Swarnoor Singh, Kamalpreet Singh, Harman deep Singh, Shiv Kumar
January-March 2015, 4(1):206-209
Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide and its prevalence is growing at an alarming rate in both developed and developing countries. It is characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, which lead to hyperglycemia and many complications such as hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In order to prevent diabetes, in addition to oral hypoglycaemic drugs, the dietary component such as Apple cider vinegar seems to be promising for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes as well as for diabetes related medical conditions. Apple cider vinegar is fermented juice from crushed apples. Acetic acid in vinegar seems to suppress disaccharidase activity and increase glucose-6-phosphate levels in skeletal muscle. Thus an attempt is made in the present study to find out the impact of apple cider vinegar in patients with type 2diabetes. Apple cider vinegar was purchased from local market and 15ml was given before meals – twice a day for 3 months. The study was conducted for three month with 40 individuals with type 2 diabetes and divided randomly in to two equal groups are as vinegar group (n=20) and control group (n=20). Information pertaining to the socio economic status, anthropometry assessment, biochemical assessment, dietary pattern, health status and personal habits were collected from the selected subjects. There was a significant decrease in BMI, WHR, fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar levels and HbA1c in vinegar group after supplementation of apple cider vinegar (p value <0.05). No such differences were found among the control group during study period. On conclusion, the above results revealed that apple cider vinegar has got an exclusive antidiabetic property and help in preventing diabetic complications. Vinegar is inexpensive, readily available, and a flavor enhancer. Apple cider vinegar was most effective to decrease glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and increases HDL because of its higher concentration of organic acids and phenolic compounds.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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