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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-September 2020
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 23-37

Online since Friday, December 18, 2020

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Caregivers' knowledge and perception of iron content in common staple foods consumed in Southeastern Nigeria p. 23
Uchenna Ekwochi, Chidiebere D. I. Osuorah, Ikenna K Ndu, Isaac N Asinobi, Stanley K Onah
Background: Iron-deficiency anemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality of children in our environment. The knowledge of its function and food-rich sources of iron among mothers and/or caregivers will go a long way to mitigate the growth and developmental consequences of iron deficiency in children. Methods: Due to the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in our locality, we set out to determine the knowledge of mothers and/or caregivers of the richest source of iron among all staple foods commonly consumed in our locality and their awareness of cooking methods that degrade the dietary iron. This cross-sectional hospital study conducted over an 8-month period recruited and interviewed 407 mothers/caregivers attending the Children's Outpatient Clinic of the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital using illustrated self-administered questionnaires. Results: A vast majority (90.9%) were aware of dietary iron, but when further questioned about its source and function, almost all respondents (99.2%) considered unripe plantain as the richest food source of iron. None chose cowpea which contains the highest iron content. Likewise, none identified cooking practices that reduce dietary iron availability. Eighteen (4.4%) correctly recognized individuals at the highest risk for iron deficiency, whereas only 5 (2.4%) and 1 (0.3%), respectively, correctly selected all the correct functions of iron and ways it can be lost in the body. Conclusion: Respondents in our study have absolutely no knowledge of cowpea, the richest and cheapest sources of iron in our environment. There is consequently a need to create a comprehensive nutritional campaign, especially during antenatal and well-child clinic visits, to educate parents/caregivers on local and readily available iron-rich food sources and cooking practices while discouraging cooking practices that could potentially degrade elemental iron in these food sources.
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Characterization of nutritional content and in vitro - antioxidant properties of Plantago ovata seeds p. 27
Shalini Sagar, Giridhar Goudar, M Sreedhar, Anil Panghal, Paras Sharma
Introduction: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate Plantago ovata seeds for its nutrients including water- and fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, oligosaccharides, free sugars, fatty acid profile, polyphenols, and in vitro-antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods: The vitamins, sugar profile, and oligosaccharides were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled with flame-ionization detector. Phenolic components and antioxidant activity were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal chelating activity, and reducing power assays. Results: The results revealed that P. ovata seed flour is the rich source of protein (17.70%) and dietary fiber (24.77%). Essential minerals including Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and K, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, α-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol were detected in varying concentrations. Total phenolic content and flavonoid content were found to be 8.72 mg GAE/g and 2.11 mg CE/g, respectively. Antioxidant property analyzed by different methods was reported as DPPH radical scavenging activity (67.9%), ABTS scavenging activity (65.89%), FRAP assay (1.68 μmol Fe (II) equiv/g), metal chelating activity (63.20%), and reducing power (78.40 μmol AAE/g). Conclusion: There are no available reports on the vitamin composition of Psyllium seeds. Psyllium seed is rich in nutrients and biological active compounds that may be utilized in the development of nutraceutical or functional foods.
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Formulation and quality evaluation of complementary mixes from foxtail millet, amaranth, spinach, banana, and papaya p. 32
Poovizhi Selvi Ravi, P Nazni
Background: Proper nutrition during infancy has a significant effect on a child's future health, immunity and success. Weaning is a transition time for the child during which the consistency and source of its diet shifts. Objective: This study was carried out to formulate foxtail millet-based composite mixes and to assess the feeding practices among the infants under the age group of 0–12 months. Materials and Methods: Foxtail millet and other major ingredients such as Bengal gram dhal, green gram dhal, groundnut, and amaranthus, as well as spinach, were procured from local market in Salem, Tamil Nadu. Fruits such as banana and papaya were also procured from the local market in Salem, Tamil Nadu. Four kinds of complementary feeding mixes were formulated at different combinations. The formulated four composite mixes have undergone an assessment of nutritive value, microbial examination, sensory analysis, and shelf-life studies. Results: The findings showed that the formulated composite mixes compared to Prescribed Dietary Allowances (Recommended Dietary Allowances) were expected to show a significant difference in nutrients such as energy, protein, thiamine, and riboflavin at 0.05% level. Regarding sensory analysis, there was a significant difference between standard and overall acceptability of the formulated mixes at 0.05% level. The shelf-life at the end of 30 days showed no noticeable difference in appearance, consistency, odor, taste and overall acceptability. Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that minor millet and multi-nutrient grains, green leafy vegetables, and basic low-cost fruits were good sources of energy, protein, iron, and micronutrients to the targeted infants as a supplementing weaning food. It can be recommended based on the infant's length and weight with the supervision. To improve the infant and young child feeding, access to adequate complementary food is necessary. complementary food is necessary.
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Vitamin D: Role in COVID-19 p. 37
P Nazni, R Arivuchudar, Ravinder Singh
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